Tuesday, November 20, 2012

“The Whistle”: Aldridge Rucker, “Franklin’s ‘Whistle’ Still Ringing True Today”

Aldridge Rucker
Dr. Teresa Coronado
English 226
20 November 2012

“The Whistle”: Aldridge Rucker, “Franklin’s ‘Whistle’ Still Ringing True Today”
Commonly, while reading works from the canon of early American literature, one might feel alienated, or unable to relate to the material at hand; the settings and interactions, morals, daily routines, etc. all seeming foreign and even fantastical – or, at the least, a little different from contemporary life. However, not everything back then was entirely different; some major problems in modern America took root in the Colonial days, and we feel the presence of these issues if not in an even stronger sense today. “The Whistle,” by Benjamin Franklin, written in 1779 and first published in 1921 by Brad Stephens & Company, is a truly American piece, years ahead of its time, and it deserves a place in the canon of American literature as it is a critical text on the effects of materialism (a truly relatable topic, given the 200 year gap) on one’s health.  Franklin’s work (originally written as a letter to a friend) points out what he believed to be important issues concerning his fellow Americans. Although “The Whistle” is a brief piece, it touches on a wide range of issues concerning materialism that can still be felt, if not more predominately in modern society, an opinion boldly supported by Steven Miles, who, in his book, Consumerism: As a Way of Life, writes, “Everyday life in the developed world appears… to be dominated by our relationship with consumer goods” (1). Miles’ statement about modern society (similar to many contemporary opinions) shows how important the topic of materialism is today. Due to the modern relevance of the problems Franklin discusses, it is remarkable that “The Whistle” was written over 200 years ago.  With the potential flaws in materialism that Franklin discusses, his work also shows how, in early America, not everyone was entirely content with capitalism and more specifically, materialism.
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) is undoubtedly one of the most famous men in American history - he even holds the popular nickname “The First American” (Brands). In 1732, he began to issue the “Poor Richard’s Almanac” filled with “borrowed or composed… pithy utterances of worldly wisdom which are the basis of a large part of his popular reputation” (Franklin 3). So, Franklin gained a reputation through his literature, another reason why all his works are important. He also wrote, “Father Abraham’s Sermon,” which is “now regarded as the most famous piece of literature in Colonial America” (3). He gained fame in science, philosophy, literature, and public affairs among other realms (3). Although the highly esteemed Benjamin Franklin wrote many famous works of literature, “The Whistle” remains fairly unknown, despite its crucial depiction of early America and what Franklin viewed as a major problem – materialism.
In “The Whistle,” (1779) Franklin tells an anecdote of when he was younger in which he paid a large sum for a whistle which brought him great joy; however, after returning home, his parents laughed and told him he paid four times too much for the toy whistle’s worth (“The Whistle”).  This disheartened Franklin, and the idea of “paying too much for one’s whistle” became, to him, a metaphor for the way that some people place too much value in what he calls “things” (“The Whistle”). Franklin’s idea of “paying too much for one’s whistle,” is very similar to the idea of “materialism,” which can be defined as a “interest in and desire for money, possessions, etc., rather than spiritual or ethical values” (“The Whistle”; “Materialism”).  What makes this such an important piece of American literature, is how throughout “The Whistle,” Franklin hints at the ways that materialism can become a competition, effecting one’s relationships with others; how materialism can affect one’s own mental well-being; and he also discusses specific “things” that one might be attracted to.  What also makes this piece so important is the way it touches on groundbreaking observations that call forth many questions, altogether begging for further research.
One way in which Franklin criticizes capitalism, is by pointing out flaws in competition – a major driving force of capitalism.  By stating, “When I saw one ambitious of Court favour, sacrificing his … Virtue and perhaps his Friend, to obtain it; I have said to myself, This Man gives too much for his Whistle,” Franklin seems to suggest that by desiring one thing so heavily, such as “court favour” (or flattery), one often sacrifices “virtue” and friendship (“The Whistle”). The quest for material, or impersonal things, becomes a competition, as Franklin suggests, standing in the way of personal relationships; this competition becomes part of the “miseries of mankind” that he later refers to (“The Whistle”). Franklin also states that, in search of these “things” (in this particular instance - “popularity”), one “neglect[s] his own Affairs, and ruin[s] them by that Neglect,” which can be interpreted as stating that one often forgets (“neglects”) family members or friends (“Affairs”) in the competition for wealth or material possessions (“The Whistle”). Similar to the idea of the competition of capitalism, Franklin also seems to suggest that rather than simply being in competition for material things (being in competition implies that one is aware of his/her competitor), one simply forgets about all other relationships; or, in other words, one becomes selfish, or egotistical, being only concerned with self-gain.  In all these examples, Franklin suggests that putting too much stock into material objects (materialism) can harm one’s relationship with others. By stating in his book, Materialism: Trait Aspects of Living in the Material World, that “materialism is an essentially egotistic trait that opposes altruism and … sharing,” Russell W. Belk, Ph. D, seems to agree with Franklin that materialistic tendencies can become egotistical. Modern social scientist, Daniel Yankelovich, is quoted in Belk’s work as stating, “consumption has led American consumers away from each other,” which is also in agreement with Franklin that a materialistic mindset can destroy relationships (3). These contemporary ideas, with their similar statements, show how important and foretelling Franklin’s views truly were. The idea of the impersonality among those who “pay too much for their whistles,” or, materialistic types, again resonates in Belk’s argument, when he states that “our society of shoppers has produced social relations that are more impersonal… and certainly less community-minded than we wish” (3). All of this seems to suggest that while consuming is an important factor of capitalism, one must be careful not to let the luster of material objects, and the appeal of more abstract things such as popularity stand in the way of human relationships. However, disconnected relationships and selfishness aren’t the only negative effects of materialism that Franklin alludes to.
When discussing the drawbacks of “paying too much for one’s whistle,” Franklin also alludes to the psychological effects materialism can produce.  Franklin states how, while attempting to gain material possessions, some people “sacrific[e] every laudable Improvement of [their] Mind … ruining [their] Health,” which shows just how detrimental Franklin believed materialism to be to one’s mental health (“The Whistle”). This is another reason why Franklin’s, “The Whistle” is crucial to the literary canon; Franklin’s perception of the psychological problems of materialism are drastically ahead of his time as, today, this problem has been given notable scientific attention.  In his book, The High Price of Materialism, Tim Kasser states, “people who strongly value the pursuit of wealth and possessions,” (or, like Franklin says, people who “pay too much for their whistle,”) Kasser continues, “report lower psychological well-being than those who are less concerned with such aims,” in other words, putting high value on material objects can end up effecting one’s own mental health (2). In Franklin’s view, putting to much value on material items is “a great [misery] of mankind” (“The Whistle”). The grandiosity of this statement implies that Franklin (again, arguably one of the most famous and admired Americans in history) saw materialism as a major problem in American society and the seriousness in which this esteemed American viewed materialism again proves why this text is so crucial to a true depiction of American history.  Kasser’s view seems to correlate with Franklin’s, when Kasser states, “the American dream has a dark side, and the pursuit of wealth and possessions might actually be undermining our well-being” (2). Notice the grand language in Kasser’s bold statement as well – “the American dream” – as it implies that Kasser views this as a major American problem. Also, Kassers’ statement hints at a question that lies within Franklin’s work (does the pursuit of wealth end up hindering personal connections?) which will be explored further, later on. Further exemplifying how important of an issue the psychological effects of materialism have become today – and also how important “The Whistle” is to the literary canon - Kasser notes that multiple scientific studies now exist on the subject. Kasser states, “Existing scientific research on the value of materialism yields clear and consistent findings. People who are highly focused on materialistic values have lower personal well-being and psychological health than those who believe that materialistic pursuits are relatively unimportant” (4). This data proves that Franklin’s assumption that materialistic pursuits are capable of “ruining [one’s] health” is true (“The Whistle”).  If the materialistic mindset taken up by so many Americans proves to be detrimental to not only one’s surroundings but one’s own health, then why do people still hold these ideals; what are people attempting to attain?
Although Franklin lists what he believes to be the reasons for materialistic pursuit; that is, the ultimate goals that he believes people are aspiring toward in their pursuits (“court favour,” “popularity,” “wealth,” “corporeal satisfactions,” “appearance,” and, perhaps the most materialistic, “cloathes [sic], fine houses,” and “fine furniture”), he never clearly indicates why, in his opinion, one might sacrifice his/her relationships and health for these objects (“The Whistle”). He only states that the “great Part of the Miseries of Mankind are brought upon them by the false Estimates they have made of the Value of Things,” in other words, the main argument Franklin is making is that one of the largest producers of “misery” in America, is the way that people place to much value on material things (“The Whistle”).
All in all, Franklin’s incredible perception of his fellow men, especially impressive by arising at such an early time in American history, begs for further exploration into why people place such a high value on material items and the scientific search, as provided earlier, is underway today. Benjamin Franklin’s highly prophetic, “The Whistle,” covers many topics related to materialism that ring true today, topics that scientists of many sorts are now beginning to study in depth.  Although “The Whistle” might be viewed as a brief parable, it not only contains a highly important lesson, especially to Americans, but also evidence that the “darker” side of materialism was rearing its ugly head over 200 years ago.

Works Cited
Belk, Russell W. "Materialism: Trait Aspects of Living in the Material World." Journal of   
_____Consumer Research. 12.3 (1985): n. page. Print

Brands, H. W. The First American, The Life And Times Of Benjamin Franklin. New York:            Anchor, 2002. Print.

Franklin, Benjamin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. New York, NY: P F Collier &        Son Company , 1909. Print.

Franklin, Benjamin. "The Whistle." (1967): n.pag. Early Americas Digital Archive.          
______Web. 20 Nov 2012. <http://mith.umd.edu//eada/html/display.php?docs=franklin_

Kasser, T. The High Price of Materialism. The MIT Press, 2003. Print.

“Materialism." Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition.  
______HarperCollins Publishers, 2009. Dictionary.com. Web. 20 Nov. 2010.

Miles, Steven. Consumerism: As a Way of Life. 1st ed. Sage Publications Ltd, 1998. 


  1. Ridge,
    I think that this draft, as is, embodies the relevance and historical information required to write a compelling introduction. You've really done an excellent job in introducing your text and hooking your reader. You did a nice job explaining the short text's allegories and their manifestation of materialism--a problem that is present today.

    Like some of the other introductions I read, your body begins to sound like an analysis paper--I am not sure if we are supposed to explain the piece and analyze it before the audience reads it, as it is an introduction. Otherwise, my only other "correction" or piece of advice would be to watch out for long-winded sentences, such as this one found in your first paragraph: Although “The Whistle” is a brief piece, it touches on a wide range of issues concerning materialism that can still be felt, if not more predominately in modern society, an opinion boldly supported by Steven Miles, who, in his book, Consumerism: As a Way of Life, writes, “Everyday life in the developed world appears… to be dominated by our relationship with consumer goods” (1).
    Upon first read, you lost me somewhere in that sentence. I would break it into two sentences.

    I would argue that this piece is extremely relevant today, and I think you did an excellent job in delving into Benjamin Franklin's biographical information. For such a short piece, you were able to come up with a solid amount of introductory information, and I think a lot of that is attributed to the fact you chose such a well known author. Though he is famous, you chose an unrecognized piece, and you have convinced me that it deserves recognition. Thank you for sharing!

  2. I really enjoyed reading both "The Whistle" and your introduction. It was nice to read something by Franklin that isn't as well known. I think that you really explored the idea of materialism well in your introduction, and how it was a significant American problem of the time. Having written about "The Sot-weed Factor", it's interesting to me how Franklin's concerns about materialism sort of mirror Ebenezer Cooke's satire about the rowdy colonists; both touch on the apparent bad behaviors of these people, but in two different ways. I also agree with Alyssa that this text is very pertinent to things that go on in today's world. Living in a society that is so focused on consumerist ideals, reading "The Whistle" kind of brings you back to reality, and helps you realize that as Americans, we have struggled with this issue for a long time.

    The one tip that I would give you as far as technical advice, is that maybe you could break your introduction down into smaller sections, at least in one part. There was one really long paragraph, and reading all of it without some kind of a break was a little much.Other than that, I really liked how you used your research and broke "The Whistle" down and examined it. The text, and your introduction, really made me stop and think about the issue of materialism. Great job.

  3. This is a very well written introduction. I am not an expert on introductions like this by any means but from what I've read this hooked me right away and I felt like I could you throughout the whole thing. That being said I do have to agree with Alyssa where I felt that this was starting to resemble a literary paper. You did a good job taking the entire essay apart but there could be somethings that are left for the reader to discover. Like Dr. Coronado said, this is just an introduction to the piece.

    Also, I enjoyed the back story and the fact that you did pick this piece. This is something that most people don't know about Benjamin Franklin and the research you did and how you incorporated it was well put it.

    The only I advice I would give is to be careful with analyzing the piece to death. But overall, this was great.

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  5. Ridge,
    I now realize why you had so much to say about this piece during class discussion on Thursday. Well, more than usual. I will exhaust the criticism that you may have over-summarized the work; however, you make a great case as to why this piece should be included within the canon, especially since the piece still applies to American society today. To be honest, this is one of the few pieces I've read by Franklin and I really enjoyed it. thank you for clarifying some parts of the story and adding your opinion on the work in general.

  6. Ridge,

    "The Whistle" is one of my favorite works that we have read in class. I agree that it is extremely relevant to today's society, and am in strong support of your claim. Your use of outside sources to support your claim that it is indeed a "piece far ahead of its time" were all well incorporated, and I like the way in which you were able to highlight the picture that Franklin paints of what America was like 200 years ago. I agree with some of the other comments that advised you to stay away from too much analysis of the text itself. I think that you can cut out some of the analysis and replace it with a focus on the bigger picture. That is-what does this letter tell us about America's history and present day America, rather than proving the negative affects of materialism. I see some of this in your final paragraph.


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